What are the 10 Main Parts of a Motherboard?

(Last Updated On: August 15, 2021)

What are the 10 Main Parts of a Motherboard?

The motherboard is an essential component of the computer that connects all other parts. It is the giant board inside the computer, and all other elements are connected to it. Motherboards are found in desktops, laptops, tablets, and even smartphones. However, in this article, we will discuss motherboards designed for use in regular desktop computers.

The essential parts of the motherboard are as follows:

Basic input/output system (BIOS)

BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System. It is a piece of read-only non-volatile memory that contains low-level software that controls all hardware and acts as a link between it and the operating system.

All motherboards include a small block of memory used to initialize hardware at boot time and control hardware while the operating system is running. The BIOS contains the necessary code to control the keyboard, screen, disks, and data ports. All BIOS programs are stored in non-volatile memory.

Memory CMOS ram:

CMOS RAM or Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Random Access Memory is a small block of volatile memory powered by a battery. The data present in this memory must not vanish upon reboot, but at the same time, you can reset to zero.

Cache memory:

Cache memory is a small block of high-speed volatile memory that speeds up your computer by pre-caching data from slower RAM. The data then transfer very quickly to the processor when needed. Processors typically have an onboard memory cache chip called L1 or L1 cache, but this can also be supplemented with an L2 cache. In modern processors, L1 and L2 caches are present into the processor and the L3 cache acts as an external cache.

Socket for processor installation:

The processor socket is a rectangular slot where the processor is installed. In most cases, the socket is present at the top of the motherboard.


It is one of the main components of the motherboard and controls all the functions. Typically, the chipset is well below the processor. It is the largest microcircuit on the board and is covered with a heat sink.

RAM slots:

The number of ram slots varies in different models and can be 2, 4, 8, or more. Nevertheless, 2 to 4 slots are more abundant in various models in most cases.

 Expansion slots:

Expansion slots are slots on the bottom of the board. In addition, cards installed in expansion slots are attached to the computer with a special screw.

SATA connectors:

SATA connectors are connectors for connecting hard drives, optical drives, and SSD drives. Typically, SATA connectors are marked in red and are located at the bottom of the motherboard.

Power connector:

A power connector is a connector through which the motherboard receives power from the power supply. Typically, this connector is colored white and is located on the right side of the motherboard.

Switches and Jumpers:

The numbers and functionalities of Switches and jumpers depend upon the model of the motherboard. However, with the help of them, you can change various parameters for connecting components.


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